TryHackMe: Web Fundamentals



LFI = Local File Inclusion

Basically, this is when user input can cause a server to include the contents of a local (server-side) file that user wouldn’t / shouldn’t normally have access to.

Most common in PHP-based websites.

Getting User Access via LFI

The effects of this can range from basic information disclosure issues (including the source of PHP files) that are most useful during reconnaissance to things like including the contents of /etc/passwd, et al. (which can be really bad).

NOTE: Typically web servers are serving content from /var/www, /var/www/srv, or an immediate subdirectory for virtual hosts. Thus to get to / generally requires ../../, ../../../, or ../../../../.

Escalating Your Privileges to Root

A reminder that GTFOBins is your friend.


Dictionary Attack

NOTE: It doesn’t look like Burp Suite can effectively run an attack using the entire rockyou.txt data set.


The idea here is to register a username with leading or trailing whitespace, since that can be eaten by SQL parsers when querying for permissions. If the username isn’t properly sanitized before registration, this means that we can register accounts like “ admin” and get the same permissions as the “real” admin account.

JSON Web Token

JSON web token format: $HEADER.$PAYLOAD.$SIGNATURE, where each substring is base64 encoded.

$HEADER and $PAYLOAD are both JSON blobs, but $SIGNATURE can be binary data.

See for a detailed breakdown. These are typically passed around as a user cookie, HTTP header, or queried from local storage.

Sometimes it’s possible to brute-force a weak secret from the $SIGNATURE (which will allow tokens to be forged as desired), but sometimes servers will also support the NONE signature type, which indicates that no signing is used (so the JWT is then just $HEADER.$PAYLOAD. - note the trailing dot!). If the server allows the NONE signing method, then it’s often possible to just arbitrarily edit the $PAYLOAD to gain access to other users.

No Auth

This is basically just an enumeration attack (the application is generating easily-guessed URLs and isn’t checking that the user actually has permission to view a particular URL).

ZTH: Obscure Web Vulnerabilities

What is SSTI?

SSTI = Server-side template injection.

This is where the server is building web pages using a template system and, because of inadequate input sanitization, the user can pass a parameter that can control the templating engine (beyond its intended limits).

Manual Exploitation of SSTI

Typically you’d test for SSTI by passing something simple like “2 + 2” and seeing what the template splits out. How you pass “2 + 2” is going to depend heavily on the template system being used, however.

The “PayloadsAllTheThings: Server Side Template Injection” document is a useful resource.

What is CSRF?

CSRF = Cross Site Request Forgery

This is when a user interacting with one website causes an action to be performed on another website as that user (in an unintended fashion). Basically, malicious URLs or JavaScript is causing the user’s browser to make requests to another site as the user but performing the actions specified by the attacker.

What is JWT?

JWT algorithms can sometimes use a server’s public key (for example, HS256 generates a signature using the public half of a keypair, while RS256 uses the private half of a keypair). If the public half of the keypair used to sign the JWT is available somehow (for example, if it’s been re-used as the server’s HTTPS certificate), then we can harvest it and use it to forge new JWTs.

JWT Challenge

The base64-encoded version of {"typ":"JWT","alg":"HS256"} is eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9Cg.

Use basenc --base64url and basenc -d --base64url to encode/decode URL-safe base64 (which is what JWT uses), rather than the base64 binary. Be sure to strip the trailing = signs!

Putting this all together, we can encode an HS256 signature (assuming that there is no secret) using:

echo -n "$HEADER.$PAYLOAD" | \
openssl dgst -sha256 -mac HMAC -macopt hexkey:$(cat $PUBLIC_KEY_FILE | xxd -p | tr -d '
') | \
sed -e 's/.*= //' | \
tr -d '
' | \
xxd -p -r | \
basenc --base64url | \
sed -e 's/=*$//'

Here $HEADER is our base64-encoded header (see above), $PAYLOAD is our base64-encoded payload, and $PUBLIC_KEY_FILE is the PEM-formatted server public key (that we’ve obviously obtained using another method).

Automatic Exploitation of the JWT “None Vulnerability”

The base64-encoded version of {"typ":"JWT","alg":"none"} is eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJub25lIn0.

Manual Exploitation of XXE

PayloasAllTheThings on XXE.

If you’re dealing with PHP, and if the PHP expect module is loaded, and if XML inputs aren’t properly sanitized, then defining a SYSTEM entity with the value of expect://$COMMAND will get you RCE!

NOTE: From the examples, it appears that while you need to add a DOCTYPE declaration with an ELEMENT to define an ENTITY, this DOCTYPE/ELEMENT can just be garbage.

XXE Challenge

Confirming that a garbage DOCTYPE/ELEMENT definition are fine, the following appears to get me access to /etc/passwd on a vulnerable box:

<!DOCTYPE test [
	<!ELEMENT test ANY>
	<!ENTITY test SYSTEM "file:///etc/passwd">