ITPro.TV: CompTIA Security+ (SY0-601) & TryHackMe: Jr. Penetration Tester

CompTIA Security+ Exam Cram

Weak Configurations

My favorite quip is here! “Unnecessary complexity” as a security vulnerability!

Elements of weak configurations:

Another gem that parallels something I like to repeat:

“An organization should never try to create its own cryptographic algorithms within systems.”

  • CompTIA Security+ SY0-601 Exam Cram, 6/e

The Exam Cram implies that leaving all services enabled will seldom be the correct answer when presented with a device configuration scenario on the Security+ exam.

Improper of Weak Patch Management

Types of updates:

Microsoft divides updates into “security updates” (which address security issues), “critical updates” (non-security updates that fix high-impact bugs), and just plain “updates” (everything else).

Third-Party Risks

Exam Cram indicates that the Security+ exam will likely ask about the dangers of end-of-life systems.


Type of potential incident impacts:

ITPro.TV: CompTIA Security+ (SY0-601)


Vulnerability: Any weakness that creates an avenue for attack.

Some specifics that the Security+ exam targets:

There are lots of third-party risks. Everything that might go wrong in-house can also go wrong with a vendor.

Many times the reason organizations will attempt to refactor third-party applications or drivers (see yesterday’s notes) is because of lack of current vendor support (and occasionally lack of vendor entirely).

TryHackMe: Jr. Penetration Tester

Viewing the Page Source

Who tries to hide secret links on their web page? But apparently, this is something more than one org does, and is a good reason to view source and/or inspect the DOM.

Also, another good reminder to look for indexable directories.

Developer Tools: Debugger

Good to know - JavaScript breakpoints persist across page loads. (This makes sense, as many times JavaScript will only be run once, immediately after page load.)

In Firefox, breakpoints can be set by clicking on the line number in a JavaScript file viewed in the Debugger (Sources in Chrome) pane.

Manual Discovery: Favicon

Quickly match a favicon to its framework!

Start by getting the favicon MD5 hash:

curl $URL_OF_FAVICON | md5sum

The look it up:

OSINT: Google Hacking / Dorking

Useful Google search modifiers:

OSINT: Wappalyzer

OSINT: S3 Buckets

It can often be fruitful to just attempt to guess an organization’s S3 buckets. Common variants:

I’ll bet dollars to donuts that “dev” and “prod” are also common suffixes.

Automated Discovery

There’s also dirbuster, but I kinda prefer gobuster.

Note that the SecLists web discovery common.txt wordlist lives in /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt on Kali Linux.

OSINT: SSL/TLS Certificates

Certificate transparency logs can be used to find subdomains with specially provisioned SSL certificates. The main option (given that the Google search tool is being taken down in a few months:

OSINT: Search Enginers

A google search for subdomain enumeration:


Note that * searches subdomains of!

DNS Brute Forcing

The dnsrecon tool actually allows us to (attempt) to brute force subdomains from a wordlist:

dnsrecon --type brt \
         --domain $DOMAIN \
         --dictionary /usr/share/wordlists/metasploit/namelist.txt

OSINT: Sublist3r

Alternative to dnsrecon (above), though not installed on Kali by default.

## Install Sublist3r
sudo apt install sublist3r

Virtual Hosts

It turns out that ffuf can fuzz HTTP headers, which can be used to try to brute force virtual host entries.

ffuf -w /usr/share/wordlists/metasploit/namelist.txt \
     -H "Host: FUZZ.$DOMAIN" \
     -u https://$IP

Use -fs $SIZE to remove results of a particular size from the list (which you’ll probably need to do in most cases).